Europäisches Journal für Minderheitenfragen
ISSN 1865-1097 (Online)
The Management of Linguistic Diversity through Territorial and Non-Territorial Autonomy
Abstract The principle of nationalism by which the political and the national is to be congruent can have a significant influence on the making of autonomy regimes. Likewise, the devolution of competences over language and education allows for the shaping of identities within such autonomy regimes. The result is an imperfect circular relation in which language, society and political institutions mutually and continuously shape each other: linguistic diversity influences the design of autonomy arrangements and vice-versa. Territorial and non-territorial autonomy have, however, different consequences. In this article the author reviews through a comparative approach how matters of linguistic diversity – including minority language education and language standardisation – are managed differently through the various forms of territorial (legislative and administrative) and non-territorial autonomy (national cultural autonomy and functional autonomy). To do so, the author draws on concrete examples involving minority languages in Spain (territorial legislative autonomy) and in Serbia (national cultural autonomy). Furthermore, the potential consequences of territorial and non-territorial models will be explored by imagining two counterfactual scenarios: a non-territorial arrangement in Catalonia and a territorial one in Serbia.
How Language Standardisation Can Promote the Use of a Lesser Used Language: the Example of Irish
Abstract The Irish language has three main spoken dialects and a single standardised written form. The recommendations of An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, the official standard, published in 1945, and the subsequent guide to Irish grammar and spelling, Gramadach na Gaeilge agus Litriú na Gaeilge, published in 1958, were broadly accepted by the Irish language community. In 2012, a revised standard (the question of whether this is a “revised standard” or a “new standard” is disputed by critics) was published and a process of consultation is in progress. The most recent census of population in the Republic of Ireland (2011) shows a growing number of Irish speakers. The number of Irish language medium schools located outside the traditional Irish-speaking areas continues to increase. Legislation has raised the status of the language nationally and internationally. This article discusses the background to Irish language standardisation, the debate it generated and how standardisation has facilitated a number of positive developments in the language in recent years.
Minderheiten in Rumänien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Deutschen in und aus Rumänien
Abstract Against the background of current political developments in Romania, two closely connected general problem areas of the social situation and conflicts within this country will first of all be gone into in detail: that of minorities and of the events of emigration, along with the latter’s repercussions and resulting problems. In a second step, this problem area is then gone into in greater depth by reaching somewhat further back in time using the examples of the question of collective identity and of the resettlement process of the Germans from Romania. The broad reaching effects of this entire process are also examined. Finally, it remains to be stressed that the further development of the problem area of minorities and migration within the European context appears to be of substantial relevance for the modernization processes that are currently taking place in this Southeastern European country.